Saturday, March 28, 2015

Roman Szporluk on Putin's Foreign Policy

Szporluk image from

From Roman Szporluk, Letters to the Editor, The Times Literary Supplement (March 6, 2015, p. 6), under the heading, "Putin's foreign policy"

Sir, - Richard Sakwa (Letters, February 20) is right to say that Vladimir Putin is not attempting to recreate the Soviet Union.Were he doing that he would have kept Crimea in Ukraine: as a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Ukraine included Crimea (from 1954 to 1991) and even Donbass, which on Lenin's insistence had been made part of Soviet Ukraine. Putin's actions today resemble the policies of Catherine II, who annexed the state of Crimea in 1783. Thus, it may be more accurate to say that Putin is attempting to recreate the Russia Empire.


See also from John Brown, The Huffington Post (08/11/2014):
The Irony of Current Russian-Ukrainian Relations

Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Ukrainian SSR motto)

In all the wise commentary on the tragic Russia-Ukraine situation, I have seen few observations (admissions?) that 20th-century Ukraine is essentially a Soviet geopolitical construction, although by now it is common knowledge that Khrushchev made Crimea part of Ukraine in 1954.

I need not repeat summaries of the history of Soviet-created Ukraine; they are available (granted, through various interpretations, on the Internet). As for the immensely talented and cultivated people living in the former Ukraine SSR, they more than ever deserve global admiration for their unique achievements, given the political oppression they have endured for centuries under various empires (vampires?)/regimes. Gogol and Shevchenko didn't come out of nowhere.

History is full of ironies. But it does seem particularly ironic that the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, reportedly nostalgic about the USSR, is -- by questioning the territorial integrity of communist-imagined Ukraine -- further dismantling the now-defunct Soviet Union.

In VVP's pre-Bolshevik, tsarist imperial dreams, Mother Russia should not limit herself to being only one member of that passé geographical expression, the USSR. Granted, Russia SSR was numero uno among the so-called Soviet republics. But that hegemonic position among "equals" is not enough for Tsar Vlad. He aims for nothing less -- I surmise from "news" reports -- than the absorption, by Russia, of "Made in the USSR" Ukraine/sections of what was the Ukraine SSR. In his words, "We need a great Russia." His reasons? Quien sabe.

Allow me to stretch historical irony to an intellectual breaking point. Is Putin, supposedly an admirer of the good old CCCP, who is described by one of his star TV propagandists as "comparable among his predecessors in the twentieth century only with Stalin," not in fact a traitor by Soviet standards? How would Stalin have reacted to a minor ex-KGB agent's efforts to place more nails in the Soviet coffin?

Such ideological misbehavior could of course be done with by "liquidating" VVP by means of an anti-Putin 1930s Moscow-style trial. Or maybe hard-nosed communist admirers of non-ethnically Russian, Georgia native Uncle Joe could offload russkii Volodya on exile to yet another former SSR republic (Georgia), Stalin's birthplace, known among culinary experts for its exceptional food and wine?

But that of course would be too generous by Stalin's standards. Under the mustached Man of Steel, Vladimir Vladimirovich would more likely end up in a Siberian Gulag, where he would keep himself mentally warm (and here I am, of course, adding a scene to the theater of the absurd defining Russian-Ukrainian relations today) by VV praying en cachette for an American visa, all the while keeping his half-frozen fingers

crossed that his daughter would keep on living comfortably in Holland in case papa couldn't make it to Brighton Beach under the excuse of being an anti-Soviet "dissident"...

Top image (flag of Ukraine SSR) from; Shevchenko image from; Putin/daughter image from article under the headline "Dutch furious after Putin's daughter is found living in Holland"
Note (not from above article) but from, which contains an image similar to the above, but with the caption "Maria Putin, the daughter of the Russian president, has reportedly fled Holland after calls for her to be deported following the downing of MH17. Pictured: Putin with his ex-wife and woman believed to be Maria)


Stalin, Father of Ukraine? - The New York Times

by Stephen Kotkin

image from

Stephen Kotkin is a professor of history at Princeton University and the author of numerous books on the Soviet Union.
This article originally appeared in The New York Times [and posted in under a heading different from the one in the NYT - JB]

Eight years ago, on Nov. 28, 2006, the Ukrainian Parliament officially designated the famine of 1931-33, which killed 5 to 7 million Soviets during Stalin’s rule, a genocide.
On Saturday, Ukraine’s president, Petro O. Poroshenko, accompanied by other officials and by his wife, laid a jar of seeds of grain near the Dnieper River in Kiev to mark the anniversary.
Stalin’s rule is rightly associated with two of the most horrific episodes in Ukraine’s history: the famine and the 1937-38 mass executions of Ukrainian intellectuals and political figures, both of which took place across the Soviet Union. Both tragedies have been invoked regularly in the months since Russia’s president, Vladimir V. Putin, seized Crimea and sent forces into eastern Ukraine.
But there is an underappreciated aspect to this tangled history: Stalin’s rule saw the formation of a land with strong Ukrainian national consciousness. Yes, he was a murderous tyrant, but he was also a father of today’s Ukraine.
Ukraine emerged out of czarist Russia as a separate country as a result of World War I, the revolutions of 1917, German military occupation and the efforts of Ukrainian nationalists. Against the wishes of other early Soviet officials, who wanted to suppress nationalism, Stalin strongly advocated recognizing — and using — it.
“Clearly, the Ukrainian nation exists and the development of its culture is a duty of Communists,” Stalin told the 10th Party Congress in March 1921.

“One cannot go against history.”
Stalin knew from his Georgian homeland that national sentiment was too strong to suppress. He also knew that the Communists could use it to win loyalty and achieve economic modernization.
Ukraine had remained effectively independent even after being reconquered by the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War of 1918-1921 and rechristened the Soviet Socialist Republic of Ukraine. Through late 1921, Soviet Ukraine signed a plethora of state-to-state treaties — with newly independent Poland, Austria, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia — and maintained diplomatic missions abroad. Ukraine had a diplomatic office in Moscow, too.
At the 10th Party Congress, Stalin argued for an integrated Soviet state. But the form of that integrated state would carry fateful consequences.
In 1922, Stalin proposed folding Ukraine, Byelorussia and the Caucasus into Soviet Russia (formally known as the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) while allowing them to retain substantial autonomy, a proposal that initially elicited Lenin’s support.
But Lenin soon changed his mind, and demanded a Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in which Ukraine and Russia would hold ostensibly equal status.
Lenin’s counterproposal was based not on a commitment to self-rule but, like Stalin, on tactics. He argued that as other countries underwent socialist revolutions — a Soviet Germany, a Soviet Hungary, a Soviet Finland — they, too, could join the new Soviet Union.
Stalin was not so naïve. “These peoples would scarcely agree to enter straight into a federative bond with Soviet Russia” on the Ukrainian model, he told Lenin.
Lenin scorned Stalin’s realism, insisting that “we need a centralized world economy, run from a single organ.”
Stalin bowed to Lenin’s authority, and loyally and skillfully implemented the Bolshevik leader’s vision to form the Soviet Union in late 1922. Lenin’s vision amounted to an overconfident bet on world revolution.
Stalin also believed in world revolution, but his proposal — annexation into Russia — would have been a hedge on that bet.
In 1991, of course, the Soviet Union dissolved. Ukraine, having avoided absorption into Russia thanks to Lenin, became independent. But the new nation encompassed as much land as it did thanks to Stalin.
When it was first formed, Soviet Ukraine had no natural border in the east with Soviet Russia. The demarcation disappointed all sides — and it is the site of today’s separatist rebellion. In the west, as a result of his 1939 pact with Hitler, Stalin seized eastern Poland and joined it to Ukraine.
The city today known as Lviv was then a largely Polish- and Yiddish-speaking community, surrounded by a Ukrainian-speaking countryside; under Stalin and his successors the city would become predominantly Ukrainian-speaking — and the center of western Ukrainian nationalism.
With the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, Stalin annexed Transcarpathia, formerly part of Czechoslovakia, and now the southwest corner of Ukraine.
Finally, Crimea, at the time a predominantly ethnic Russian territory, was transferred to Ukraine from Russia in a decision taken under Stalin but implemented only after he had died, in 1954, on the 300th anniversary of the Cossack request for imperial Russia’s protection against the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth.
Except for Crimea, today’s nationalist Ukraine is a bequeathal of Stalin. It’s true that he executed countless officials of Ukrainian (and every other) ethnicity. But as the Soviet state expanded, he promoted still more Ukrainians to take their places.
Even when he belatedly made study of Russian language a requirement in all Soviet schools, he did not discontinue instruction in national vernacular languages.
Of course, in helping to enlarge and consolidate Soviet Ukraine, Stalin never imagined that the Soviet Union would someday disappear. And so Mr. Putin faces a formidable obstacle.
He is said by diplomats to have told President George W. Bush, at a NATO summit meeting in Bucharest, Romania, in 2008 that “Ukraine is not even a state.” And in claiming territory from Ukraine, Mr. Putin has cited Catherine the Great’s Black Sea conquests and creation of “New Russia” in the late 18th century. But Mr. Putin cannot escape more recent history.
Russia’s annexation of Crimea has rendered Ukraine even more ethnically Ukrainian, and helped elect Ukraine’s first ever pro-European parliamentary majority. One does not have to take sides over the human tragedy unfolding in eastern Ukraine to grasp that, whether Mr. Putin does or does not have clear strategic goals, he cannot wipe out the fruits of the Soviet period.
Mr. Putin cannot simply swallow Ukraine — it is no longer “New Russia.” And unlike Stalin — indeed, because of Stalin, and because of his regime’s own behavior — Mr. Putin cannot entice Ukraine back into a new “Eurasian” union with Russia either.
Ukrainians have little affection for Stalin’s dictatorship, but their struggle for statehood owes much to his legacy — a legacy that, for different reasons, neither they nor Mr. Putin like to think about.

The Great Migration: Note for a lecture, "E Pluribus Unum? What Keeps the United States United"


The Great Migration, or the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from 1916 to 1970, had a huge impact on urban life in the United States. Driven from their homes by unsatisfactory economic opportunities and harsh segregationist laws, many blacks headed north, where they took advantage of the need for industrial workers that first arose during the First World War. As Chicago, New York and other cities saw their black populations expand exponentially, migrants were forced to deal with poor working conditions and competition for living space, as well as widespread racism and prejudice. During the Great Migration, African Americans began to build a new place for themselves in public life, actively confronting economic, political and social challenges and creating a new black urban culture that would exert enormous influence in the decades to come. 
After World War I broke out in Europe in 1914, industrialized urban areas in the North, Midwest and West faced a shortage of industrial laborers, as the war put an end to the steady tide of European immigration to the United States. With war production kicking into high gear, recruiters enticed African Americans to come north, to the dismay of white Southerners. Black newspapers–particularly the widely read Chicago Defender–published advertisements touting the opportunities available in the cities of the North and West, along with first-person accounts of success.
By the end of 1919, some 1 million blacks had left the South, usually traveling by train, boat or bus; a smaller number had automobiles or even horse-drawn carts. In the decade between 1910 and 1920, the black population of major Northern cities grew by large percentages, including New York (66 percent) Chicago (148 percent), Philadelphia (500 percent) and Detroit (611 percent). Many new arrivals found jobs in factories, slaughterhouses and foundries, where working conditions were arduous and sometimes dangerous. Female migrants had a harder time finding work, spurring heated competition for domestic labor positions.

Aside from competition for employment, there was also competition for living space in the increasingly crowded cities. While segregation was not legalized in the North (as it was in the South), racism and prejudice were widespread. After the U.S. Supreme Court declared racially based housing ordinances unconstitutional in 1917, some residential neighborhoods enacted covenants requiring white property owners to agree not to sell to blacks; these would remain legal until the Court struck them down in 1948.
Rising rents in segregated areas, plus a resurgence of KKK activity after 1915, worsened black and white relations across the country. The summer of 1919 began the greatest period of interracial strife in U.S. history, including a disturbing wave of race riots. The most serious took place in Chicago in July 1919; it lasted 13 days and left 38 people dead, 537 injured and 1,000 black families without homes.
As a result of housing tensions, many blacks ended up creating their own cities within big cities, fostering the growth of a new urban African-American culture. The most prominent example was Harlem in New York City, a formerly all-white neighborhood that by the 1920s housed some 200,000 African Americans. The black experience during the Great Migration became an important theme in the artistic movement known first as the New Negro Movement and later as the Harlem Renaissance, which would have an enormous impact on the culture of the era. The Great Migration also began a new era of increasing political activism among African Americans, who after being disenfranchised in the South found a new place for themselves in public life in the cities of the North and West.
Black migration slowed considerably in the 1930s, when the country sank into the Great Depression, but picked up again with the coming of World War II. By 1970, when the Great Migration ended, its demographic impact was unmistakable: Whereas in 1900, nine out of every 10 black Americans lived in the South, and three out of every four lived on farms, by 1970 the South was home to less than half of the country’s African-Americans, with only 25 percent living in the region’s rural areas.

Barack Obama: Early Life and Career. Note for a lecture, "E Pluribus Unum? What Keeps the United States United"

From Wikipedia

Early life and career

Obama was born on August 4, 1961,[1] at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital (now Kapiʻolani Medical Center for Women and Children) in Honolulu, Hawaii,[2][3][4] and would become the first President to have been born in Hawaii.[5] His mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, and was of mostly English ancestry.[6] His father, Barack Obama, Sr., was a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian class at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[7][8] The couple married in Wailuku on Maui on February 2, 1961,[9][10] and separated when, in late August 1961, Obama's mother moved with their newborn son to attend the University of Washington in Seattle for one year. In the meantime, Obama, Sr. completed his undergraduate economics degree in Hawaii in June 1962, then left to attend graduate school at Harvard University on a scholarship. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964.[11] Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964 where he remarried; he visited Barack in Hawaii only once, in 1971.[12] He died in an automobile accident in 1982 when his son was 21 years old.[13]
In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro, an Indonesian East–West Center graduate student in geography at the University of Hawaii, and the couple were married on Molokai on March 15, 1965.[14] After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia in 1966, followed sixteen months later by his wife and stepson in 1967, with the family initially living in a Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet subdistrict of south Jakarta, then from 1970 in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng subdistrict of central Jakarta.[15] From ages six to ten, Obama attended local Indonesian-language schools: St. Francis of Assisi Catholic School for two years and Besuki Public School for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School homeschooling by his mother.[16]
A young boy (preteen), a younger girl (toddler), a woman (about age thirty) and a man (in his mid-fifties) sit on a lawn wearing contemporary c.-1970 attire. The adults wear sunglasses and the boy wears sandals.
Obama with his half-sisterMaya Soetoro-Ng, mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Honolulu, Hawaii
Obama returned to Honolulu in 1971 to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham, and with the aid of a scholarship attended Punahou School, a private college preparatory school, from fifth grade until his graduation from high school in 1979.[17] Obama lived with his mother and sister in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii.[18] Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 so his mother could begin anthropology field work.[19] His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a PhD in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following treatment for ovarian cancer and uterine cancer.[20]
Of his early childhood, Obama recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk—barely registered in my mind."[8] He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[21] Reflecting later on his years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[22] Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind".[23] Obama was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends that spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana.[24][25]
After high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid.[26] In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan and India for three weeks.[26] Later in 1981, he transferred as a junior to Columbia College, Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations[27] and lived off-campus on West 109th Street.[28]He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1983 and worked for a year at the Business International Corporation,[29]then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[30][31] In 1985, Obama was among the leaders of May Day efforts to bring attention to the New York City Subway system, which was in a bad condition at the time. Obama traveled to several subway stations to get people to sign letters addressed to local officials and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, and was photographed at the City College subway station holding a sign protesting the system's condition.[32]

Community organizer and Harvard Law School

Two years after graduating, Obama was hired in Chicago as director of the Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in RoselandWest Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.[31][33] He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[34] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[35] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[36][37] He returned to Kenya in 1992 with his fiancée Michelle and his half-sister Auma.[36][38] He returned to Kenya in August 2006 for a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya.[39]
Obama entered Harvard Law School in the fall of 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Reviewat the end of his first year,[40] president of the journal in his second year,[34][41] and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years.[42] During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[43] After graduating with a J.D. magna cum laude[44] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[40]Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[34][41]and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,[45] which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[45]


  1. Jump up^ "President Barack Obama". Washington, D.C.: The White House. 2008. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
  2. Jump up^ "Certificate of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama II, August 4, 1961, 7:24 pm, Honolulu"Department of Health, State of Hawaii. The White House. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. RetrievedApril 27, 2011.
  3. Jump up^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible"The Washington Post. p. A22. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
  4. Jump up^ Nakaso, Dan (December 22, 2008). "Twin sisters, Obama on parallel paths for years"The Honolulu Advertiser. p. B1. Retrieved January 22, 2011.
  5. Jump up^ Rudin, Ken (December 23, 2009). "Today's Junkie segment on TOTN: a political review Of 2009"Talk of the Nation (Political Junkie blog). NPR. Retrieved April 18, 2010We began with the historic inauguration on January 20—yes, the first president ever born in Hawaii
  6. Jump up^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12.
  7. Jump up^ Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator"Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Tempo).
  8. Jump up to:a b Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10.
    • Scott (2011), pp. 80–86.
    • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118.
    • Maraniss (2012), p. 154–160.
  9. Jump up^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother"Time (New York). Retrieved April 9,2007.
  10. Jump up^ Scott (2011), p. 86.
    • Jacobs (2011), pp. 125–127.
    • Maraniss (2012), p. 160–163.
  11. Jump up^ Scott (2011), pp. 87–93.
    • Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118, 125–127, 133–161.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 170–183, 188–189.
  12. Jump up^ Scott (2011), pp. 142–144.
    • Jacobs (2011), pp. 161–177, 227–230.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 190–194, 201–209, 227–230.
  13. Jump up^ Ochieng, Philip (November 1, 2004). "From home squared to the US Senate: how Barack Obama was lost and found"The EastAfrican (Nairobi). Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
    • Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). "The ghost of a father"The Washington Post. p. A12. Retrieved June 25,2008.
    • Jacobs (2011), pp. 251–255.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 411–417.
  14. Jump up^ Scott (2011), pp. 97–103.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 225–230.
  15. Jump up^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 209–223, 230–244.
  16. Jump up^ Maraniss (2012), pp. 216, 221, 230, 234–244.
  17. Jump up^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics"Honolulu Star-Bulletin. RetrievedMarch 20, 2008.
    • Scott, Janny (March 14, 2008). "A free-spirited wanderer who set Obama's path"The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
    • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.
    • Scott (2012), pp. 131–134.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 264–269.
  18. Jump up^ Scott (2011), pp. 139–157.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281.
  19. Jump up^ Scott (2011), pp. 157–194.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281, 324–326.
  20. Jump up^ Scott (2011), pp. 214, 294, 317–346.
  21. Jump up^ Serrano, Richard A. (March 11, 2007). "Obama's peers didn't see his angst"Los Angeles Times. p. A20. RetrievedMarch 13, 2007.
    • Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 4 and 5.
  22. Jump up^ Reyes, B.J. (February 8, 2007). "Punahou left lasting impression on Obama"Honolulu Star-Bulletin. RetrievedFebruary 10, 2007As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks.
  23. Jump up^ Elliott, Philip (November 21, 2007). "Obama gets blunt with N.H. students"Boston Globe. Associated Press. p. 8A. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
  24. Jump up^ Karl, Jonathan (May 25, 2012). "Obama and his pot-smoking "choom gang"". ABC News. Retrieved May 25,2012.
  25. Jump up^ "FRONTLINE The Choice 2012". PBS. October 9, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  26. Jump up to:a b Gordon, Larry (January 29, 2007). "Occidental recalls 'Barry' Obama"Los Angeles Times. p. B1. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  27. Jump up^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83"Columbia College TodayISSN 0572-7820. RetrievedOctober 1, 2006.
  28. Jump up^ "The Approval Matrix"New York. 27 August 2012.
  29. Jump up^ Obama, Barack (1998). "Curriculum vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the originalon May 9, 2001. Retrieved October 1, 2006.
  30. Jump up^ Scott, Janny (July 30, 2007). "Obama's account of New York often differs from what others say"The New York Times. p. B1. Retrieved July 31, 2007.
    • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140.
    • Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.
  31. Jump up to:a b c d Chassie, Karen, ed. (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468.ISBN 978-0-8379-7011-0.
  32. Jump up^ Fink, Jason (November 9, 2008). "Obama stood out, even during brief 1985 NYPIRG job"Newsday.
  33. Jump up^ Lizza, Ryan (March 19, 2007). "The agitator: Barack Obama's unlikely political education"The New Republic236 (12): 22–26, 28–29. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
    • Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (March 30, 2007). "Portrait of a pragmatist"Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
    • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295.
    • Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.
  34. Jump up to:a b c Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). "A Law Review breakthrough"Boston Globe. p. 29. Retrieved June 15,2008.
  35. Jump up^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues14 (8–9): 40–42. ISSN 0738-9663. reprinted in:
    Knoepfle, Peg, ed. (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0-9620873-3-5He has also been a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, an organizing institute working throughout the Midwest.
  36. Jump up to:a b Obama, Auma (2012). And then life happens: a memoir. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 189–208, 212–216.ISBN 978-1-250-01005-6.
  37. Jump up^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.
    • Maraniss (2012), pp. 564–570.
  38. Jump up^ Mundy, Liza (2008). Michelle: a biography. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-4165-9943-2.
    • Maraniss (2012), p. 564.
  39. Jump up^ Gnecchi, Nico (February 27, 2006). "Obama receives hero's welcome at his family's ancestral village in Kenya". Voice of America. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
  40. Jump up to:a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (January 28, 2007). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice"Boston Globe. p. 1A. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  41. Jump up to:a b Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review"The New York Times. p. A20. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  42. Jump up^ Video on YouTube
  43. Jump up^ Aguilar, Louis (July 11, 1990). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners"Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Business). Retrieved June 15, 2008.
  44. Jump up^ Adams, Richard (May 9, 2007). "Barack Obama"The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on October 13, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  45. Jump up to:a b c Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The story of Obama, written by Obama"The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
    • Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.